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Acknowledgements

CTSN is provided for general review of pertinent topics in cardiothoracic surgery. The text for each review topic is original material written by the authors and is based on the following texts:

Cardiac Surgery, 2nd edition, by Drs. John Kirklin and Brian Barratt-Boyes
Surgery of the Chest, 5th edition, by Drs. David Sabiston and Frank Spencer
Glenn's Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 6th edition, by Drs. Arthur Baue, Alexander Geha, Graeme Hammond, Hillel Laks, and Keith Naunheim
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, 2nd edition, by Drs. Constantine Mavroudis and Carl Backer
Cardiac Surgery of the Neonate and Infant, by Drs. Aldo Castaneda, Richard Jonas, John Mayer, and Frank Hanley
Cardiac Surgery: Operative Technique, by Dr. Donald Doty

Graphics, illustrations, and other media have been compiled and modified from a variety of sources, including but not limited Dr. Donald Doty's atlas, journal articles, and the authors' personal teaching files. Selected reference articles were obtained via Medline search and personal review of the articles. Graphical material consists of original electronic illustrations and digitized images from the Image Library of the Cardiothoracic Surgery Network (CTSNet). The material in CTSN is therefore intended for review purposes only and may not be reproduced for financial or other incentive.